Salah - The Muslim Prayer

  Wudu Azan Salah Various Prayers

 

CHAPTER VI
SALÁH ON SPECIFIC OCCASIONS

JUMU'AH (or Friday) Prayer
Beside the daily Saláh, the Friday prayer is also obligatory upon Muslim men. For Muslim women it is not obligatory, but is desirable if they are able to do so without upsetting their household work.

The Friday Saláh is offered in congregation on Friday at Zuhr time. First the Imam delivers a sermon (Khutabh). Then he leads the congregation in a two raka'át Saláh. After this two or more raka'át of Sunnah or Náfilah prayers are offered individually.

TARÁWÍH (or Ramadán) PRAYER
These prayers are offered during the month of Ramadán after 'Ishá Saláh. These consist of eight, twelve or twenty raka'át, and are offered two by two with a short rest between every four raka'át. They may be said alone but collective prayers are recommended. These are additional Sunnah prayers.

THE 'ÍD PRAYERS (Salatul-'Idayn)
There are two 'Id or occasions of great festivity for the Muslims. The first is called 'ldul-Fitr or the festival of fastbreaking. It is celebrated on the first day of the tenth Islamic month (Shawwal) following Ramadán, the month of fasting. It marks great thanks-giving for the Muslims all over the world.

The second 'Id is the Idul-Adha or the festival of great sacrifice, which is observed on the tenth of Dhul-Hijjah, the last Islamic month. The animals are sacrificed to celebrate the great sacrifice of the Prophet Ibráhím (peace be upon him).

On both these 'Ids, 'Id prayers are offered in congregation any time after sunrise and before noon. There is no Adhán (call for prayer) or lqamah (second call before congregation). The 'Id prayer consists of two raka'át (offered just as the two raka'át of Jumu'ah prayer are said) with six to sixteen additional 'Takbírs' (ALLÁHU AKBAR). You say three or more Takbírs in the first raka'át after 'Thaná' and three or more 'Takbírs' in the second raka'át before you bow down for Ruku'.

A sermon (Khutbah) is delivered by the Imam (leader of the prayer) after the two raka'át 'Id prayer unlike the Jumu'ah prayer when it precedes the prayer.

The presence of all Muslims, women and children included, is strongly recommended.

FUNERAL PRAYERS
It is a prayer to Alláh for a deceased Muslim, and is a common obligation on all Muslims of the locality. The funeral Saláh is offered in congregation but unlike other formal prayers, it has neither any Ruku' (bowing) nor any Sajdah (prostration). Here is the complete sequence of the funeral prayer:

Saying Takbír (Alláhu Akbar) with the rest of the congregation raise your hands to your ears, then bring them down on, above or below the navel as in formal prayers with the right hand on the left. Then recite the following praise or Thaná silently:

SUBHÁNAKAL-LÁ HUM-MA WABIHAMDIKA (Glory to Alláh, and praise be to You)

WATABÁRA-KASMUKA WATA'ÁLÁ JADDUKA (and blessed is Your name and Exalted is your Majesty)
WAJAL-LA THANÁ'OKA WALÁ ILÁHA GHAIRUK (and Glorious is Your praise and there is none worthy of worship besides You)

After Thaná again raise hands to your ears saying Alláhu Akbar. Now silently recite the Darud:

ALLÁHUM-MA SALLE 'ALÁ MUHAMMADIW WA 'ALÁ ÁLI MUHAMMADIN (O Alláh, exalt Muhammad and the followers of Muhammad)

KAMA SALLÁITA ALÁ IBRÁHÍMA WA 'ALÁ ÁLI IBRÁHÍMA (as Thou has exalted Ibráhím and the followers of Ibráhím)

IN-NAKA HAMÍDUM-MAJEED ALLÁHUM-MA BÁRIK 'ALÁ MUHAMMADIW (Thou surely art praised Magnified.O Alláh, bless Muhammad)

WA 'ALÁ ÁLI MUHAMMADIN KAMÁ BÁRAKTA 'ALÁ IBRÁHÍMA (and the followers of Muhammad as Thou has blessed Ibráhím)

WA 'ALÁ ÁLI IBRÁHÍMA IN-NAKA HAMÍDUM-MAJEED (as Thou has blessed Ibráhím Surely Thou art the praised and Magnified)


A) Now in case the deceased Muslim is an adult, recite this Du'á:

ALLÁHUM-MAGHFIRLI-HAYYÍNÁ WAMAYYÍTINÁ (O Alláh pardon our living and our dead)

WASHÁHIDINÁ WAGHÁ'IBINA (the present and the absent)

WASAGHÍRINÁ WAKABÍRINÁ WADHAKARINÁ WAUNTHÁNÁ(our young and the old, and the males and females.)

ALLÁHUM-MA MAN-AHYAYTAHÚ MIN-NÁ FA-AHYIHÍ 'ALAL ISLÁM (O Alláh, be to whom You accord life among us,) cause him to live in the observance of Islám)

WAMAN TAWAF-FAITAHÚ MIN-NÁ FATAWAF-FAHÚ 'ALAL-ÍMÁN (and be to whom You give death, cause him to die in the state of Ímán (faith)).

 

B) If the deceased is an adult woman substitute the last two lines with the following:

ALLÁHUM-MA MAN AHYAITAHÁ MIN-NA FA-AHYIHA 'ALAL ISLÁM
(O Alláh, she to whom You accord life among us, cause her to live in the observation of Islám,)
WAMANTAWAF-FAITAHÁ MIN-NA FATAWAF-FA HÁ 'ALAL ÍMÁN
(and she to whom you give death, cause her to die in the state of Ímán (faith)).

(C) If the deceased is a minor and a boy then recite this Du'á:

ALLÁHUM-MA J'ALHU LANÁ FARATAW (O Alláh, Make him our fore-runner,)

WAJ'ALHULANA ARJAW-WADHUKHRAW (and make him for us a reward and a treasure,)

WAJ'ALHÚLANÁ SHAFI'AW MUSHAF-FA'Á (and make him for us a pleader, and accept his pleading)


(D) If the deceased is a minor and a girl, then recite this Du'á:

ALLAHUM-MA-J'ALHALANA FARATAW (O Alláh, make her our fore-runner,)

WAJ'ALHALANÁ AJRAW WADHUKHRAW (and make her for us a reward and a treasure,)

WAJ'ALHÁLANÁ SHÁFI'ATAW WA-MUSHAF-FA'AH (and make her for us a pleader, and accept her pleading)

After this the Imám again says aloud "Alláhu Akbar". The congregation repeats these words silently. Then the Imám and the Muslims turn their faces first to the right and then to the left side saying As-salámu-Alaikum Wa-Rahmatulláh on either side.

 

PERSONAL PRAYER (DU'Á) AFTER SALÁH:

When you have completed your Fard or Sunnah prayers, you may pray to Alláh in your own words offering him praise, thanksgiving or asking him for forgiveness for yourself or other Muslims or your own dear and near ones. For this Du'á keep sitting after the obligatory or Sunnah prayers, hold up your hands near each other with the palms up and fingers slightly bent. In this position you may offer anyone of these or other personal prayers:

ALLÁHUM-MA ANTAS-SALÁM WA-MINKAS-SALÁM (O Alláh, You are the Author of peace and from You comes peace)

TABÁRAKTA YÁ-DHALJALÁLI WÁL-IKRÁM (Blessed are You, O Lord of Majesty and Honour)

ALLÁHUM-MA-GHFIRLÍ WALIWÁLIDAYYA WALI USTÁDHÍ (O Alláh, forgive me and my parents and my teachers,)

WALIJAMÍ'L MU'MINÍNA WAL MU'MINÁTI WAL MUSLIMÍNA WAL MUSLIMÁT (and all the believing men and women and obedient men and women with your mercy.)

BIRAHMATIKA YÁ-ARHAMAR-RÁHIMÍN (O Most Merciful of (all) those who show mercy)