Salah - The Muslim Prayer

  Wudu Azan Salah Various Prayers



Saláh in Islám is a unique institution. It brings man closer to Alláh by harmonising his mental attitude with physical posture. In Saláh, a Muslim submits himself completely to his Creator.

When you are sure that you have fulfilled all the necessary conditions for Saláh, you ready to offer Saláh. A detailed account of how to say Saláh is given below:

Say to yourself that you intend to offer this Saláh (Fajr, Zuhr, 'Asr, Maghrib or 'Ishá) Fard or Sunnah. Then raise your hands to your ears saying:

ALLÁHU AKBAR (Alláh is the greatest)

NOTE: The hand is in line with ear lobe

NOTE: Ladies lift their hands up to their shoulders only as shown below.

Now placing your right hand on the left, just below, above or on the navel (as shown Above - and ladies placing their hands on their chest as shown) recite the following:

SUBHÁNA-KALLÁH-HUM MA WA BI-HAMDIKA (O Alláh, Glorified, praiseworthy)
WATABÁRAKAS-MUKA WATA'ÁLÁ JADDUKA (and blessed is Thy Name and exalted Thy Majesty)

WA-LÁ ILAHÁ GHAÍRUK (and there is no deity worthy of worship except Thee.)

A'Ú-DHU-BIL-LÁ-HI MINASHAITÁNIR RAJÍM (I seek refuge in Alláh from the rejected Satan)

BISMILÁHIR RAHMÁNIR RAHÍM (In the Name of Alláh, the Beneficent, the Merciful)

After this recite the opening Surah, Al-Fátihah:

ALHAMDU LIL-LÁHI RAB-BIL 'ÁLAMIN (Praise be to Alláh, Lord of the worlds)

AR-RAHMÁ-NIR RAHÍM (the Beneficent, the Merciful)
MÁLIKI YAU-MID-DIN (Master of the Day of Judgement)

IYYÁ-KA N'ABUDU WA-IYYÁKA NASTA'ÍN (Thee alone we worship and to Thee alone we turn for help)

IHDI-NAS-SIRÁ-TAL MUSTAQÍM (Guide us in the straight path)

SIRÁ TAL-LADHINA AN-'AMTA 'ALÁIHIM (the path of those whom You favoured)

GHAIR-IL MAGHDUBI 'ALAÍHIM (and who did not deserve Thy anger)

WALAD-DÁL-LIN (AMIN) (or went astray)


Now recite the following or any other passage from the Holy Qur'án:

BISMILÁHIR RAHMÁNIR RAHÍM (In the Name of Alláh, the Beneficent, the Merciful)

QUL HU-WAL-LÁHO AHAD (Say: Alláh is one and the only God)

ALLÁ-HUS-SA-MAD (Alláh, upon whom all depend)

LAM YALID WALAM YÚLAD (He begets not, nor is He begotten,)

WALAM YAKUL-LAHÚ KUFU-WAN AHAD (and there is nothing which can be compared to Him)

Posture for ladies in Ruku' is slightly different to that of a man

Now bow down saying:ALLÁHU AKBAR Alláh is the greatest, Place your hands on your knees and in this inclined position (Ruku' as shown in above) recite these words three times:

SUBHÁNA RAB-BI-YAL 'AZÍM (Glory to my Lord the great)

Then come to the standing position saying:SAMI 'ALLÁHU LIMAN HAMIDAH RAB-BANÁ LAKAL HAMD (Alláh has heard all who praise Him, Our Lord: Praise be to Thee)

Now saying "Alláhu Akbar" prostrate on the ground with your forehead, the knees, the nose and palms of both hands touching the ground. In this position (Sajdah as in below) repeat these words three times at least:

SUBHÁNA RÁB-BI-YAL A'ALÁ (Glory to my Lord, the most high)

NOTE: Your nose & forehead in line with carpet

Sit upright with knees still on the ground and after a moments rest perform the second Sajdah saying: ALLÁHU AKBAR Alláh is the greatest,

- In the second Sajdah as before recite the following words three times: ALLÁHU AKBAR Alláh is the greatest

This completes one raka'át of Saláh. The second raka'át is said in the same way (as all above),except that after the second Sajdah you sit back, with the left foot bent towards the right, which should be placed vertical to the mat with the toes touching the mat. The palms should be lifted from the mat and placed on the knees.

In this position, silently say these words (Tashahhud): Sitting position for females

AT-TAHI-YÁTU LIL-LÁHI WAS-SALAWÁTU WAT-TAYYIBÁTU (All prayers and worship through words, action and sanctity are for Alláh only)
AS-SALÁMU 'ALAIKA AY-YUHAN-NABIY-YU (Peace be on you, O Prophet)
WARAHMATUL-LÁHI WABARAKÁTUH (and Mercy of Alláh and His blessings)
AS-SALÁMU 'ALAINÁ WA'ALÁ 'IBÁDIL-LÁHIS-SÁLIHIN (Peace be on us and on those who are righteous servants of Alláh)

ASH-HADU AL-LÁ ILÁHA IL-LAL-LAHÚ (I bear witness to the fact that there is no deity but Alláh)

WA-ASH-HADU AN-NA MUHAMMADAN 'ABDUHU WARASÚLUH (I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger)

In a three raka'át (i.e. Maghrib) or four raka'át (like Zuhr, 'Asr and 'Ishá) Saláh you stand up for the remaining raka'át after Tashahhud. On the other hand if it is a two raka'át (Fajr) Saláh, keep sitting and after this recite Darud (blessing for the Prophet) in these words:

AL-LÁHUM-MA SAL-LI 'ALÁ MUHAMMAD-IW WA 'ALÁ ÁLI MUHAMMADIN (O Alláh, exalt Muhammad and the followers of Muhammad)
KAMÁ SAL-LAITA 'ALÁ IBRÁHÍMA WA'ALÁ ÁLI IBRÁHÍMA (As Thou did exalt Ibrahim and his followers)

IN-NAKA HAMÍDUM-MAJEED (Thou art the praised, the Glorious)

AL-LÁHUM-MA BÁRIK 'ALÁ MUHAMMAD-IW (O Alláh, bless Muhammad)

WA 'ALÁ ÁLI MUHAMMADIN (and his followers)

KAMÁBÁRAKTA 'ALÁ IBRÁHÍMA WA ALÁ ÁLI IBRÁHÍMA (as Thou has blest Ibrahim and his followers)
IN-NAKA HAMÍDUM-MAJEED (Thou art the Praised, the Glorious)

Final part:

RAB-BIJ-'ALNÍ MUQÍMAS-SALÁTI WAMIN DHUR-RIY-YATI (O Lord! Make me and my children steadfast in Prayer;)

RAB-BANÁ WATAQAB-BAL DU'Á' RAB-BIGH FIRLÍ (Our Lord! Accept the prayer. Our Lord! forgive me)

WA LIWÁLIDAY-YA WALIL-MU'MINÍNA YAUMA YAQÚM-UL HISÁB (and my parents and believers on the Day of Judgement)

Now turn your face to the right saying;

AS-SALÁMU 'ALAIKUM WA-RAHMATUL-LÁH (Peace be on you and Alláh's blessings)

Then turn your face to the left (as in above) and repeat the above words (aloud).

This completes your two raka'át Saláh. The four raka'át of Zuhr, 'Asr and 'Ishá are said in an identical manner with the only difference that in the first two Raka'at of Zuhr and 'Asr, Al-Fátihah is said silently while in 'Ishá prayer it is recited aloud.

If you are performing a three raka'át (like Maghrib) or four raka'át (like Zuhr, 'Asr and 'Ishá) Saláh stand up after Tashahhud saying ALLÁHU AKBAR and recite Al-Fátihah. You must remember that Al-Fátihah is always recited silently in the third and fourth raka'át of every Saláh. When you are offering Fard Saláh do not recite any additional passage from the Holy Qur'án after Al-Fátihah in the last two raka'át. After the second Sajdah in the fourth raka'át say the Tashahhud, Darud and end with "AS-SALÁMU 'ALAIKUM WA-RAHMATUL-LÁH" to each side (first right, then left as shown in the above pictures). This marks the end of Saláh.



As you can see in the chart below, each Saláh is composed of (a) Fard, the prescribed prayers, (b) Sunnah and (c) Nafilah or additional prayers. The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) said these additional prayers before or after the prescribed (Fard) prayers. These are therefore recommended. The sequence of these additional prayers in each Saláh is given below:

The three raka'át prayers said after the Fard and Sunnah of the 'Ishá is called Salát-ul-Witr. It is strongly recommended in the practice of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) and is Wajib (necessary) according to one section of Muslims. Others regard it a mere Sunnah Saláh.

The first two raka'át of this Salát-ul-Witr are said like the first two raka'át of the Maghrib prayers. In the third raka'át after Al-Fátihah, recite some additional Surah or verses of the Qur'án. Then, saying ALLÁHU AKBAR raise your hands above your shoulders, fold your hands, and recite the following or any other similar Du'á silently. This is called Du'á-al-Qunut or the prayer of submission:

ALLÁHUM-MA IN-NÁ NASTA'INUKA (O Alláh, we seek Thy help,)

WANASTAGHFIRUKA WANU'MINU BIKA WANATAWAK-KALU 'ALAIKA (and ask Thy forgiveness, and believe in Thee and trust in Thee)
WANUTHNI 'ALAIKAL-KHAIRA WA-NASHKURUKA (and we praise Thee in the best manner and we thank Thee)

WALÁNAKFURUKA WANAKHLA'U WANATRUKU (and we are not ungrateful and we cast off and forsake him)

MAY-YAF JURUK ALLÁHUM-MA IY-YÁKA N'ABUDU (who disobeys Thee. O Alláh, Thee alone do we worship,)

WALAKA NUSAL-LÍ WA-NASJUDU WA-ILAIKA NAS'Á (and to Thee we pray, and before Thee do we prostrate, to Thee do we turn to)
WANAHFIDU WANARJÚ RAHMATAKA WANAKHSHÁ ADHÁBAKA (in haste, and hope for Thy mercy, and we fear Thy punishment)

IN-NA 'ADHÁBAKA BÍL-KUF-FÁRI MULHIQ (Thy punishment surely overtakes the unbelievers)

After this saying ALLÁHU AKBAR bow down in Ruku' and then complete the rest of the prayers like the Maghrib prayers.

The table below gives details of raka'át in each Saláh: